Book review: Tupaia – The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook’s Polynesian Navigator by Joan Druett

This book is in stores now and is a finalist in the New Zealand Post Book Awards.

As remarkable as this sounds, when I first travelled to Australia, at the age of 20, I was taken aback to find that there were a number of James Cook monuments, hotels and the like. And that Joseph Banks was responsible for naming all of their plants too! The problem is that you only know what you know, and what you are taught and exposed to.

In my case, post-colonial views of history that seem to only focus on the New Zealand aspects of the voyages, and have removed, or at the very least diminished, certain key history makers from the stories. Tupaia, a noble Polynesian who encountered Captain James Cook in the Tahiti Islands and set sail with him on his journey south aboard the Endeavour, is one of them.

Joan Druett clearly sees Tupaia as an extraordinary man whom European history books have not served well. She clearly likes and respects her main character and yes, this biography does read at times like a story – a compelling story too. Druett sets the tone for her book early on when writing about Tupaia:

“… he was Tahiti’s highest priest. Then the canoe without an outrigger arrived.”
Immediately Druett had my attention and she held it until the end.

That the Crew of the Endeavour were not the first Europeans to meet Tupaia was probably “lost in translation”. But, in reality, by the time Cook and Banks arrived, Tupaia had already met and traded with another crew of Englishmen, and a French contingent led by Louis De Bouganville.

Regardless of these prior meetings, the meeting of the Endeavour crew on April 11, 1769 was momentous since as Druett puts it “the expectations of all on board had reached a pitch of excitement.” They could never have anticipated that they would sail away with local men on board, who would prove to be crucial for Cook’s navigation of both the South Pacific seas and its people and customs.

You know what happened next – the Endeavour crew sailed south to New Zealand. Tupaia, according to Druett’s meticulous research was a key figure on the boat, but he succumbed to illness before arriving back to England, and was almost forgotten in the public aftermath. Almost.

This engaging book, has made me reflect on the facts of the Cook voyages; reminding me that there were dozens of people either on board, or that the crew encountered on these great voyages of discovery. Tupaia was just one of them – a translator, astronomer, navigator, artist, mapmaker, geographer – one of a number of remarkable men of the time. And this is his story.

Reviewed by Gillian Torckler

Tupaia – The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook’s Polynesian Navigator
By Joan Druett
Random House NZ
9781869793869 (Hardback)
9781869797133 (Paperback)

Book review: Bligh by Anne Salmond

This book is in stores now and is a finalist in the New Zealand Post Book Awards.

Everyone knows about Captain Bligh. We all saw at least one of the movies. And would Mel Gibson or Marlon Brando lie?

Perhaps not lie, but there seems to have been a few omissions.

Even in the brief introduction to this book I discovered the new (to me anyway) fact that Bligh was the master of one of the ships on Captain Cook’s third voyage. He was introduced to pacific peoples as “Cook’s son” for a dose of instant mana. And I discovered also that he was an acquaintance of Sir Joseph Banks and a pioneer ethnographer of the Pacific peoples.

Anne Salmond is an academic, and has produced an academic book, based on detailed research including some new sources. These include, most interestingly, some unguarded letters from Bligh to his wife Elizabeth (Betsy). It’s hard to avoid speculating about the contents of her replies, if she ever wrote back. He was clearly a warm family man, and Betsy was a loyal supporter not only through the mutiny and its aftermath, but during his later, by no means trouble-free, career.

Bligh made three voyages to the Pacific. The mutiny occurred during the second voyage, and naturally from then on the mutiny, his tremendous feat of seamanship in reaching Timor, and the aftermath of courts-martial and personal reactions occupy a good deal of Bligh’s attention, and the book. His subsequent career, as a combat captain in the navy and as Governor of New South Wales, is covered, but in less detail.

Why the mutiny? Well, maybe Fletcher Christian and his crew preferred the creature comforts of Tahiti to the discomfort of a very small ship, sent on a mission that really needed something larger. Salmond certainly seems to think that this was a factor. But how much blame attaches to Bligh himself?

The atmosphere of life on the Bounty comes alive in Salmond’s writing. So does the character of Bligh. A kind comment would be to call him irascible. He was subject to what were called “violent tornados of temper”. He suffered from severe headaches, he was a miser, and made sure to be as comfortable as possible himself. But for his time he was a relatively enlightened naval officer, looking after his crews’ welfare, and resorting to the cat less often than many captains at the time. He comes across as possibly bi-polar, but a man of his class and time, who knew his duty and would carry it out.

The book focusses on Bligh, but also seeks to illuminate the culture of the islands, especially of Tahiti. The mutiny is placed in context: there were other mutinies, and the great fear among the English ruling class was that the French revolution would spread. Some even feared that the mutiny, and the general unrest in the Navy, was the start of the “contagion”.

This is a big book. In places it is difficult going because of the sheer number of characters and places involved. It has a full set of notes and extensive bibliography, as would be expected. The production values are good. There’s a lot of text, some coloured plates and half-tone drawings, but it couldn’t be described as “well illustrated”.

So I, like so many other readers, am forced into a reassessment of Bligh. Any reader trying to understand this complex character is reminded just how easy it is to get history wrong through simplification and focussing on the easy stories. How many other characters, both good and bad, need the same sort of thorough-going carefully researched reassessment?

I came away from the book with a feeling that I understood both Bligh and his two worlds much better. But one reading isn’t enough – I intend to re-read in a little while because I’m sure that there is much more to get out of it. And I won’t read it straight through next time, but rather focus on specifics. A lot of the book’s value would be lost if it was read simply “for the story”.

I also came away distrusting the movies. How disappointing.

Reviewed by Gordon Findlay

Bligh
 by Anne Salmond
Published by Penguin Group (NZ)
ISBN 9780670075560 (Hardback) and ISBN 9781742287812 (Ebook)